Iran Geography

Iran Deserts

Desert is a familiar word for Iranians. As this word, always reminds us of an arid aria with few plants. Where you can hardly find water and the living conditions are intolerable.
The center of Iran consists of several closed basins that collectively are referred to as the Central Plateau. The average elevation of this plateau is about 900 meters (2,953 ft), but several mountains of this plateau exceed 3,000 meters (9,843 ft). The eastern part of the plateau is covered by two salt deserts, the Dasht-e Kavir (Great Salt Desert) and the Dasht-e Lut. Except for some scattered oases, these deserts are uninhabited.

Iranian Kavirs (deserts) have attracted special interest and may be unique in the variety of their composition and surface types. They offer a prospect of desolate waste that extends almost continuously from within 50 km of Tehran to Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf.

 

dasht e lut

Dasht e Kavir

Dasht e Kavir

Dasht e Kalout

Dasht e Kalout

 

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Iran Forests

More than one-tenth of Iran is forested. Mild climate, plentiful rainfall, and a long growing season have combined to make a dense forest of high-quality timber in the Caspian region. Moreover, more than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran. There is an extensive growth of temperate-zone hardwoods, including beech, oak, Siberian elm, maple, walnut, ash, ironwood, basswood, alder, and fig. About half of the Caspian forests consist of these trees; the remainder is low-grade scrub. The Zagros Mountains in the west and areas in Khorasan and Fars provinces abound in oak, walnut, and maple trees. Shiraz is renowned for its cypresses.

The Iranian forests belong to the European-Siberian growth region in the Holarctic. This region includes parts of Europe and Northern Asia of which the climate varies from cold to moderately warm weather. With regard to flora, this area could be divided into the sub-regions of Northern, Atlantic, Pontic, and Central Europe.

The Pontic sub-region in the Middle East is represented by Accino-Hircnai Province. This sub-region includes the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and the coastal areas in its vicinity, and northern Turkey’s mountains. This is well adapted for the expansion and growth of forests.

Iranian forests can be classified ecologically as comprising of these biomes:

  1. Caspian broadleaf deciduous forests
  2. Arasbaranian forests
  3. Zagrosian forests

The important species of trees on commercially usable forests are:

  • Beech Fagus orientalis
  • Hornbeam Carpinus betulus
  • Oak Quercus castaneifolia
  • Alder Alnus subcordata
  • Maple Acer velutinum
  • Linden Tilia caucasica
  • Persian iron wood Parrotia persica

 

Gilan Forest
Gilan Forest

Mazandaran Forest
Mazandaran Forest

 

 

 

 

Golestan Forest
Golestan Forest

 

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Iran Mountains

Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, and Caspian Sea. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, or plateaus, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. The topography of Iran consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins.

The main mountain chain is the Zagros Mountains, a series of parallel ridges interspersed with plains that bisect the country from northwest to southeast. Many peaks in the Zagros exceed 3,000 meters (9,843 ft) above sea level, and in the south-central region of the country there are at least five peaks that are over 4,000 meters (13,123 ft).

As the Zagros continue into southeastern Iran, the average elevation of the peaks declines dramatically to under 1,500 meters (4,921 ft). Rimming the Caspian Sea littoral is another chain of mountains, the narrow but high Alborz Mountains. Volcanic Mount Damavand, 5,610 meters (18,406 ft), located in the center of the Alborz, is not only the country’s highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.

alborz Mountains

alborz Range

Zagros Mountains

Zagros Range

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Iran Seas, Lakes, and Lagoons

Iran? A dry country covered with mountains and deserts? Whenever somebody talks about Iran, this is usually the first image that comes to mind.

. However, this is not the whole truth. In northern parts, Iran borders the Caspian Sea, the biggest lake on the planet and in southern sections it borders the Persian Gulf and the Gulf Of Oman. All through the country even through high mountains and hot deserts you can always find fascinating oases, cold & hot springs, whitewater rivers and finally, beautiful lakes and lagoons, lying in a hidden place in peace.

 

Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea

 

 

 

 

Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf

Anzali Lagoon
Anzali Lagoon

Zarivar Lake
Zarivar Lake

 

 

 

 

 

 

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